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One of the best things in life is the true love between two people, whether you are the one being loved or giving love or both. It takes off the mask that we fear we cannot live without and know we cannot live within. But sometimes, we are never so defenseless against suffering as when we love. Odili (Onny Micheal) and Okwukweka (Uju Okoli) are two love birds who have pledged their undying love for each other. But can their love withstand the calamity that is about to ravage their kingdom? Will they be able to overcome all the trials and temptations that come their way? An emotional and educative movie you can't afford to miss.
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Kevin Keener developed a rapid egg cooling system that uses circulated carbon dioxide to create a thin layer of ice inside an egg's shell that cools the inside of an egg within minutes, strengthening proteins and increasing shelf life. (Purdue Agricultural Communication file photo/Keith Robinson)
The tapeworm's life cycle involves a definitive and one or more intermediatehosts (except for the one-host cycle of Hymenolepis nana). Eachtype of cycle has specialized larval forms (cysticercus, cysticercoid; coenurus,hydatid; coracidium, procercoid, plerocercoid).
Tapeworms are ribbon-shaped multisegmented flatworms that dwell as adults entirely inthe human small intestine. The larval forms lodge in skin, liver, muscles, thecentral nervous system, or any of various other organs. Their life cycles involve aspecialized pattern of survival and transfer to specific intermediate hosts, bywhich they are transferred to another human host. Each pattern is characteristic ofa given tapeworm species.
Figure 89-2 illustrates the life cycle ofT saginata. Gravid segments break off from the worm and arecarried in the fecal bolus or by their own crawling activity to the soil. Thesegments move away from the bolus and adhere to grass. If ingested by a bovineintermediate host, the segments are digested open in the gut, each releasing50,000 to 100,000 eggs. The eggs hatch, each releasing a six-hooked larva, theoncosphere (also called the hexacanth), which penetrates the gut wall andreaches the muscles via the circulation. There the oncosphere fills with fluidand develops into the 8-mm cysticercus. If a human eats raw or undercookedinfected beef, the cysticercus is digested free and inverts the scolex, whichattaches to the wall of the small intestine and begins to bud off the long chainof segments. In about 3 months the worm reaches 4-5 m in length and gravidsegments begin to pass through the anus. The worm is long-lived, surviving 5 to20 years or more.
Because of its limited contact with the epithelial lining, the gut-dwelling adulttapeworm induces little host inflammatory, allergic, cell-mediated, or humoralresponse. The sucking action of the scolex appears to have relatively limitedimmunogenic effect. The long life span of the worm suggests the absence of aneffective inhibitory mechanism.
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Large worms may grow by 15 to 30 cm a day in the human gut, passing 10 segmentsdaily, which may convey up to a million eggs a day into the environmentthroughout the long life span of the worm. Eggs may also be found in pasturesflooded by human sewage or on which human sewage is used as fertilizer.
As shown in Figure 89-2, the life cycleof T solium is similar to that of T saginataexcept that the pig is the principal intermediate host. Because the gravidsegments are less motile than those of T saginata, they areusually eliminated in the fecal matter and remain in the fecal bolus (whichincreases the chance of infecting pigs, which are coprophagous).
The life cycle of this parasite is shown in Figure 89-4. Infection is acquired most commonly from eggs in thefeces of another infected individual, which are transferred in food, bycontaminated fingers, or in sewage-contaminated drinking water.
The ingested eggs hatch in the duodenum, and the oncospheres penetrate only intothe villi (Fig. 89-5). There, eachoncosphere forms a cysticercoid larva that emerges, 4 to 5 days later, into thegut lumen as a young scolex and neck; the scolex attaches to the mucosa, theneck proceeds to strobilate, and the worm reaches full size in 5 to 10 days. Theadult worm sheds gravid terminal segments, which disintegrate in the intestine,releasing eggs that are passed in the feces. When these eggs are ingested byanother (nonimmune) human, this direct or one-host life cycle begins again.Worms live only a short time, perhaps 4 to 6 weeks. Rodents also can harborthese worms and may serve as reservoir hosts, infecting humans via theirpellets.
Remarkably, an indirect, two-host cycle may also occur, involving grain beetles,fleas, or other insects that feed on contaminated rodent droppings. Insects thatingest the H nana eggs can serve as hosts for the cysticercoidlarvae. Humans who accidentally ingest infected grain beetles (some of which,such as Tribolium, are only 2 to 3 mm long) digest thecysticercoid free; digestive enzymes then act on the cysticercoid to release thescolex, which attaches and develops by this indirect cycle into an adult wormidentical to that acquired by the direct life cycle.
Hymenolepis nana is probably the commonest human cestode, owingto its wide distribution, particularly in crowded areas, such as India andChina. The direct infectiousness of the eggs frees the parasite from its formerdependence upon an insect intermediate host, making rapid infection andperson-to-person spread possible. The short life span and rapid course ofdevelopment also facilitate the spread and ready availability of this worm.Congested areas, day-care centers, and crowded institutions such as prisonsfrequently have high levels of infection with H nana, despiteits strong immunizing capacity and short life span.
The rat tapeworm, which is larger than H nana (up to 40 cm long),has a life cycle involving grain insects, similar to the indirect cycle of Hnana. H diminuta rarely infects humans, but may do soif a human eats an insect carrying cysticercoids of this worm. The infection is mostcommon in children, causes a mild diarrhea, is diagnosed by finding thecharacteristic eggs in the stool, and is readily treated with praziquantel.
Diphyllobothrium latum is the only adult cestode of humans thathas an aquatic life cycle (Fig. 89-6).Eggs are passed in feces of an infected human (or bear, dog, cat, wolf, raccoon,or other freshwater fish-eating reservoir host). If passed into lake or pondwater, the eggs develop in 2 or more weeks (varying with the temperature) andhatch, releasing the spherical ciliated coracidium that contains the oncosphere.When ingested by an appropriate water flea (copepods such as Cyclops orDiaptomus), the coracidium sheds the ciliated coat, penetrates into thehemocoel, and changes in 2 to 3 weeks into the 0.5 mm, tailed second-stageembryo, the procercoid. If the infected copepod is then ingested by a minnow orother fish, the procercoid penetrates the fish gut in a few hours and laterdevelops into a third-stage larva, the plerocercoid or sparganum. Usually, thesesmall infected fish are eaten by larger ones; in each new fish host, theplerocercoid penetrates into the fascia or muscles. Eventually, a large gamefish, such as a perch or pike, is infected; after being eaten by a human, thefish releases its tapeworm passenger, which attaches and begins adult life. In afew months, the worm is 5 to 10 m long.
Sparganosis is a tissue infection with the sparganum (or plerocercoid) ofSpirometra, a genus related toDiphyllobothrium. These two genera have similar lifecycles, but Spirometra usually utilizes frogs, reptiles, or various smallmammals as intermediate hosts, whereas Diphyllobothrium usesfish. In the Southeast Asia, frog flesh (rather than beef steak) is used as apoultice over a wound or black eye, which allows the sparganum to crawl into thewound or orbit, initiating a severe inflammatory response. Humans can alsoacquire the infection as a result of drinking water containing infected Cyclopsand possibly from undercooked snake or other infected meat. The procercoids fromCyclops invade the gut wall of the human or animal intermediate host and usuallymigrate to subcutaneous tissues to form a sparganum, which induces in humansformation of a fibrous 2-cm nodule that encloses and destroys the worm. Thenodule can usually be removed surgically or can be treated with praziquantel ifthe cyst is inaccessible to surgery.
Eukaryotic multicellular life has evolved a variety of techniques in order to nourish the developing young both before and after birth, these techniques include nourishment via the placenta, the avian and reptilian egg and mammalian lactation. Whilst the primary function of these various adaptations is nutrition they also aid development through the delivery of bioactive molecules such as hormones [1, 2], antibodies [3, 4] and, in the case of mammalian milk, through the delivery of microRNAs (miRNA) .
The discovery of miRNAs in eggs has potentially important implications. The active transport of beneficial miRNAs from the mother into the albumen or yolk would be an efficient mechanism for the chicken to help promote normal chick development as the miRNAs could be continually supplied to the growing embryo during nutrient uptake. If, as we suggest, maternally derived miRNAs in the egg are being used during chick development then this presents an attractive manner in which the poultry industry may be able to promote better production standards and animal welfare outcomes. The selective inclusions of miRNAs into the egg that promote immune system development or increased intestinal absorptive efficiency are just two examples of the possible applications of this exciting discovery. Another potential outcome of these findings could be the improvement of eggs for human consumption by modulating nutritional value or extending their shelf-life.